The Nine Saints, who were suffering at the hands of the Catholics because their Orthodox faith and refusal to accept the Council of Chalcedon held in 444 E.C, made the fugitives and then come to Ethiopia. The Nine Saints preached the Gospel in the northern part of the country, established and promoted monastic life and translated many books into Geez from different languages. St.Yared rose at this age and contributed a lot in church education, church hymn and liturgy. King Caleb the saint and his son Gebre Meskel established monasteries all over Ethiopia and protected Christians in Yemen.
The Nine Saints were a group of missionaries who were important in the initial growth of Christianity in what is now Ethiopia during the late 5th century. Their names were Abba Aftse, Abba Alef, Abba Aragawi, Abba Garima (Isaac, or Yeshaq), Abba Guba, Abba Liqanos, Abba Pantelewon, Abba Sehma, and Abba Yem’ata. Although frequently described as coming from Syria, only two or three actually came from that province; according to Paul B. Henze, others have been traced to Constantinople, Anatolia, and even Rome.
The Ethiopian historian Tadesse Tamrat speculates that they may have been connected with the anti-Monophysite and anti-Miaphysitepersecutions that followed the Council of Chalcedon, which adopted Dyophysitism. Tradition states that upon arrival they were welcomed by theAxumite king Ella Amida. Their activities spread Christianity beyond “a narrow corridor between Adulis and Aksum along the caravan routes.” Besides converting the local inhabitants to Christianity, they also founded a number of monastic houses that followed the rule of Saint Pachomius: Abba Aftse founded the monastery at Yeha; Abba Alef the northernmost establishment at Bi’isa on the south bank of the Mareb River; the foundation of the important monastery of Debre Damo is attributed to Abba Aragawi; Abbas Liqanos and Pantelewon are credited with establishing Pentalewon Monastery in Axum; Abba Garima founded Abba Garima Monastery north of Adwa; Abba Guba the one at Madara; Abba Sehma one at Sedenya; and Abba Yem’ata founded the southernmost one of the group in the Gar’alta.